Os desafios da construção civil em madeira no Brasil

Com o setor de construção civil em estagnação, talvez esse seja o momento ideal para olhar novos materiais, como a madeira. Mas como superar esses desafios, principalmente no Brasil, se ainda existe forte preconceito e uma série de mitos em torno da madeira?

Por AMATA AMATA 13/11/2017

Os desafios da construção civil em madeira no Brasil

Ao longo dos anos, inúmeros trabalhos e pesquisas na área da construção civil apontam o uso da madeira como o grande próximo passo do mercado, principalmente como meio de se afastar da estagnação e retração que o setor vem sofrendo nos últimos anos.

Durante as discussões levantadas no WoodRise, congresso mundial sobre a construção de prédios de madeira em altura, onde a AMATA esteve presente junto à delegação brasileira, um ponto que chamou atenção foi que este é o único setor que piorou em produtividade nos últimos cem anos, e seria o momento ideal para olhar novos materiais com mais eficiência.

Mas como superar esses desafios, principalmente no Brasil, se ainda existe forte preconceito e uma série de mitos em torno da madeira?

Um dos principais fatores para que a madeira se popularize é incentivar seu uso, pois o mercado de construção ainda está enraizado nos sistemas construtivos tradicionais. Muitos ainda não entendem que o objetivo não é tirar o concreto, o aço ou o cimento da construção, mas, sim, mostrar a madeira como uma opção mais positiva, eficaz e, principalmente, sustentável. Seja como substituto ou como complemento.

Os arquitetos possuem grande poder ao se relacionarem com seus clientes. Estimular e explicar o uso da madeira e seus produtos tecnológicos, como o CLT e o Glulam, é estimula que todos se questionem sobre formas de fazer mais sustentável o que já fazemos. Mas para tanto, os arquitetos precisam ter conhecimento, segurança e garantia de que o material é realmente viável técnica e ambientalmente.

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, e isso exige formação mais consistente, além de busca por informação - hoje muito acessível fora do país -  ainda que o tema seja pouco discutido nas escolas de Arquitetura e Engenharia aqui do Brasil.

Outro ponto fundamental é desmistificar uma série de fatores e posicionar a madeira como um material seguro, desde que se tenha controle da execução e da especificação, principalmente no que diz respeito ao cenário de incêndio, quando se fala de construção de prédios de madeira.

Testes realizados recentemente pelo The International Code Council, em parceria com o Serviço Florestal Norte Americano, expuseram o CLT ao cenário de fogo em um prédio de apartamentos de vários andares, e os resultados apresentados foram promissores.

Alguns desses testes simularam três horas de incêndio e finalizaram sem carbonização significativa nas superfícies de madeira protegidas da estrutura. Outros teste sinalizaram positivamente na extinção do fogo usando sprinklers e casos em que o mobiliário e conteúdo de seu interior foram totalmente consumido pelo fogo, mas as superfícies maciças de CLT praticamente se auto extinguiram, permanecendo intactas, apenas sob uma crosta de carvão. Os resultados completos podem ser conferidos aqui.

Outra forma do tema avançar é a integração da cadeia como um todo: o setor produtivo precisa pensar em florestas para o uso na construção civil, produzindo madeira certificada que atenda às exigências de qualidade para esse fim; e o segmento acadêmico precisa formar profissionais em todas as áreas, desde o manejo florestal e plantio até o processo de produção na serraria, pois senão, mesmo que muitas vezes os arquitetos e engenheiros especificam a madeira, não encontra-se produto legal de qualidade, ou mão de obra especializada.

Não é um desafio simples, mas estamos caminhando para reverter esse cenário. Muito se foi dito que a madeira é o material do futuro. Há cada vez mais a certeza de que ele, na verdade, é o material do presente.

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